Metallurgical Testing

  • Metallography and Photomicrography (ASTM E3,E883)
  • Grain Size determination (ASTM E112)
  • Inclusion Level (ASTM E45)
  • Macroetch testing (ASTM  E340, E381)
  • Ferrite/Austenite ratio (ASTM E562)
  • Microhardness testing:  Knoop & Vickers (ASTM E384)
  • Plating thickness (ASTM B487)
  • Banding (ASTM E1268)
  • Case depth (SAE J423)
  • Decarburization (ASTM E1077,SAEJ121,419

Test specimens being ground finished and
polished for metallographic examination

Retained austenite (white) embrittling 
a carburized and hardened alloy steel surface 

Caustic embrittlement 

Inhomogeneous grain size in a forging